Emotion, face, empathy

Emotion is one of the most controversial topics in psychology; most psychologists can probably agree on a description of emotion as a phenomenon composed by various components: these components of emotion are distinguished on the basis of physiological or psychological factors and include emotion faces, emotion elicitors, and emotion neural processes. Such emotional processes may be conscious or unconscious and may not require conceptual processing.

Interpersonal contexts are the basic filed where emotions are elicited. A broad component which is directly implicated in such emotional filed is empathic behaviour.

The neural processes can be considered a component of the emotion process, especially how the neurons and their emotional concomitants are organized centrally and peripherally in the brain. Many contemporary research studies are focussed on anatomical and functional aspects of brain activity in regard to emotion.
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National and International Pubblications
 
  Books and book chapters
 

Balconi, M., Emotional face comprehension. Neuropsychological perspectives. Nova Science Publishers, New York, USA, 2008.
Balconi, M., Neuropsicologia dell’espressione facciale delle emozioni. Aracne Editrice, Roma, 2006.
Balconi, M., Neuropsychology and cognition of emotional face comprehension. Research Signpost, Kerala, 2006.
Balconi, M., Neuropsicologia delle emozioni. Carocci Editore, Roma, 2004.

Vanutelli, M.E., Lecci, G., Balconi, M. Neuropsychological Perspectives in Understanding Affective and Cognitive Impairment in Asperger Syndrome: The       Case of Facial Expression of Emotions. In Asperger Syndrome: Risk Factors, Cognitive-Behavioral Characteristics and Management Strategies       (M. F. Shaughnessy Ed.). Nova Science Publishers, New York (submitted)
Amenta, S., Ferrari, C., Balconi, M. Facial expression decoding in autistic and Asperger children, in Comprehensive guide to autism (V.B. Patel, V. R.       Preedy, C.R. Martin, Eds.). Springer, New York, 2014, pp. 1885-1904.
Balconi, M., Ferrari, C.The role of reward and inhibitory systems in subliminal and supraliminal processing of facial expression of emotions: Brain       research contribution, in Mind and Body Research Summaries, Volume 2 (L.T. Cacioppo, Ed.). Nova Science Publishers, New York, 2013, pp.       351-352.
Balconi, M., Ferrari, C., Aversive vs. appetitive emotional stimulus elaboration: Subjective ratings and BIS and BAS effects on psychophysiological and       ERPs correlates, in Mind and Body Research Summaries,Volume 2 (L.T. Cacioppo, Ed.). Nova Science Publishers, New York, 2013, pp. 359-360.
Balconi, M. Mismatching feedback and punishment-reward system (BIS/BAS): Effects on FERN and P3 ERP modulation, in Mind and Body Research       Summaries,Volume 2 (L.T. Cacioppo, Ed.). Nova Science Publishers, New York, 2013, pp. 361-362.
Balconi, M, Consciousness and emotion: attentive vs. pre-attentive elaboration of face processing, in Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning (N.M.       Seel, Ed.), Springer-Verlag, New York, 2012, pp.774-776.
Balconi, M., In the face of fear: neuropsychological contributions and empirical evidences, in Psychology of fear: New Research (A.D Gervaise, Ed.).       Nova Science Publisher, New York, 2011, pp. 31-51.
Balconi, M., Prospettive multidimensionali della ricerca scientifica. dagli indici comportamentali alle misure psicofisiologiche nel decoding della mimica       emotiva, in Epistemologie della complessità nella ricerca psicologica(C. Galimberti, G. Scaratti, a cura di), Vita & Pensiero, Milano 2010, 19-62.
Balconi, M., Lucchiari, C. Consciousness, emotion and face: An event-related potential study, in Consciousness and emotion. Agency, conscious       choice, and selective perception (R. Ellis, N. Newton, Eds.), John Benjamins: Philadelphia, 2005, pp.121-135.

 

Scientific papers

IN PRESS

Balconi, M., Canavesio, Y. Is empathy necessary to comprehend the emotional faces? The empathic effect on attentional mechanisms (eye-
      movements), cortical correlates (N200 event-related potentials) and facial behaviour (electromyography) in face processing, «Cognition and       Emotion», (in press).
Vanutelli, M.E., Balconi, M. Empathy and prosocial behaviours. Insights from intra- and inter-species interactions, «Rivista Internazionale di       Filosofia e Psicologia», (in press).

2015

Balconi, M., Cobelli, C. rTMS on left prefrontal cortex contributes to memories for positive emotional cues: a comparison between pictures and       words, «Neuroscience», 287, 93-103.
Balconi, M., Pagani, S. Social hierarchies and emotions: cortical prefrontal activity, facial feedback (EMG) and cognitive performance in a dynamic       interaction, «Social Neuroscience», 10(2), 166-178.
Balconi, M., Grippa, E., Vanutelli, M.E. What hemodynamic (fNIRS), electrophysiological (EEG) and autonomic integrated measures can tell us       about emotional processing, «Brain and Cognition», 95, 67-76.

2014

Balconi, M., Bortolotti, A., Self-report, personality and autonomic system modulation in response to empathic conflictual versus non conflictual       situation, «Cognition and Emotion», 28(1), 153-162.
Balconi M., Lecci, G., Trapletti,V.What do facial expressions of emotion express in young children? The relationship between facial display and       EMG measures, «Neuropsychological Trends», 15, 7-23.
Balconi, M., Pagani, S. Personality correlates (BAS-BIS), self-perception of social ranking, and cortical (alpha frequency band) modulation in peer-
      group comparison, «Physiology & Behavior», 133, 207-215.
Balconi, M., Canavesio, Y., High-frequency rTMS on DLPFC increases prosocial attitude in case of decision to support people, «Social
       Neuroscience», 9(1), 82-93.
Balconi, M., Canavesio, Y, Finocchiaro, R. Transcranial magnetic stimulation modulates left premotor cortex activity in facial expression recognition       as a function of anxiety level, «Translational Neuroscience», 5(3), 165-172.
Balconi, M., Cobelli, C., Motivational mechanisms (BAS) and prefrontal cortical activation contribute to recognition memory for emotional words.       rTMS effect on performance and EEG (alpha band) measures, «Brain and Language», 137, 77-85.
Balconi, M., Vanutelli, M.E., Finocchiaro, R. Multilevel analysis of facial expressions of emotion and script: self-report (arousal and valence) and       psychophysiological correlates, «Behavioral and Brain Functions», 10, Article Number 32 (1-14).
Balconi, M. (2014). Self-report, personality and autonomic system modulation in response to empathic conflictual vs. non conflictual situation, Cognition and Emotion (in collaboration with A. Bortolotti).

2013

Balconi, M., Bortolotti, A. Emotional face recognition, empathic trait (BEES), and cortical contribution in response to positive and negative cues.       The effect of rTMS on dorsal medial prefrontal cortex, «Cognitive Neurodynamics», 7, 13-21.
Balconi, M., Canavesio, Y. Prosocial attitudes and empathic behavior in emotional positive versus negative situations. Brain response (ERPs) and       source localization (LORETA) analysis. «Cognitive Processing», 14, 63-72.
Balconi, M., Canavesio, Y. High-frequency rTMS improves the facial mimicry and detection responses in an empathic emotional task       «Neuroscience», 236, 12-20.
Balconi, M., Canavesio, Y, Emotional contagion and trait empathy in prosocial behavior in young people. The contribution of autonomic (facial       feedback) and Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale (BEES) measures. «Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology», 1, 41-48.
Balconi, M., Bortolotti, A. Conscious and unconscious face recognition is improved by high-frequency rTMS on pre-motor cortex, «Consciousness       and Cognition», 22, 771-778.
Balconi, M., Ferrari, C. Repeated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on dorsolateral prefrontal cortex improves performance in emotional memory       retrieval as a function of level of anxiety and stimulus valence, «Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences», 67, 210-218.
Balconi, M., Bortolotti, A., Crivelli, D. Self-report measures, facial feedback, and personality differences (BEES) in cooperative vs. noncooperative       situations: contribution of the mimic system to the sense of empathy «International Journal of Psychology», 631-640.
Balconi, M., Bortolotti, A., The “simulation” of the facial expression of emotions in case of short and long stimulus duration. The effect of pre-
      motor cortex inhibition by rTMS, «Brain and Cognition», 83, 114-120.
Balconi, M., Ferrari, C. Left DLPFC rTMS stimulation reduced the anxiety bias effect or how to restore the positive memory processing in high-
      anxiety subjects. «Psychiatry Research», 209, 554-559.

2012

Balconi, M. Amenta, S., Ferrari, C. Emotional decoding in facial expression, scripts and videos: A comparison between normal, autistic and       Asperger children, «Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders», 6, 193-203.
Balconi, M., Bortolotti, A. Resonance mechanism in empathic behavior. BEES, BIS/BAS and psychophysiological contribution, «Physiology &       Behavior», 105, 298-304.
Balconi, M., Ferrari, C., Subliminal and supraliminal processing of facial expression of emotions. Brain oscillation contribution «Brain Sciences» 2,       85-100.
Balconi, M. Neuropsychology of facial expressions. The role of consciousness in processing emotional faces. «Neuropsychological Trends», XI,       aprile, 19-40.
Balconi, M., Falbo, L., Conte, A. V. BIS and BAS correlates with psychophysiological and cortical response systems during aversive and appetitive       emotional stimuli processing, «Motivation and Emotion», 36, 218-231.
Balconi, M., Pozzoli, U. Encoding of emotional facial expressions in direct and incidental tasks. An ERP (event related potentials) N200 effect       «Journal of Neurotherapy», 16, 92-109.
Balconi, M., Bortolotti, A. Detection of the facial expression of emotion and self-report measures in empathic situations are influenced by       sensorimotor circuit inhibition by low-frequency rTMS, «Brain Stimulation», 5, 330-336.
Campanella, S., Falbo, L., Rossignol, M., Grynberg, D., Balconi, M., Verbanck, P., Maurage, P., Sex differences on emotional processing
     are modulated by subclinical levels of alexithymia and depression. A preliminary assessment using event-related potentials, «Psychiatry       Research, 197, 145-153.
Balconi, M., Bortolotti, A., Empathy in cooperative versus non-cooperative situations: the contribution of self-report measures and autonomic       responses «Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback», 37, 161-169.
Balconi, M., Ferrari, C. rTMS stimulation on left DLPFC increases the correct recognition of memories for emotional target and distractor words,       «Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience», 12, 589-598.
Balconi, M., Ferrari, C. Emotional memory retrieval. rTMS stimulation on left DLPFC increases the positive memories, «Brain Imaging and       Behavior», 6, 454-461.
Balconi, M., Ferrari, C. rTMS stimulation on left DLPFC affects emotional cue retrieval as a function of anxiety level and gender, «Depression and       Anxiety», 29, 976-982.

2011

Balconi, M. Frontal brain oscillations modulation in facial emotion comprehension: The role of reward and inhibitory systems in subliminal and       supraliminal processing, «The Journal of Cognitive Psychology», 23, 723-735.
Balconi, M.,. Bortolotti, A., Gonzaga, L. Emotional face recognition, EMG response, and medial prefrontal activity in empathic behavior,       «Neuroscience Research», 71, 251-259.
Balconi, M., Carrera, A., Cross-modal integration of emotional face and voice in congruous and incongruous pairs. The P2 ERP effect, «The       Journal of Cognitive Psychology» 23, 132-139.
Balconi M., Crivelli, D. Bortolotti, A., Detection of facial expression of emotion and self-report measures in empathic situations are influenced by       ACC inhibition: rTMS evidences, «Neuropsychological Trends», VIII, novembre, 95-99.
Balconi, M., Ferrari, C. DLPFC implication in memory processing of affective information. A look on anxiety trait contribution, «Neuropsychological       Trends», XI, I, novembre, 53-70.
Balconi M., Ferrari, C., Amenta, S. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex involvement in recognition memory. A rTMS study on stress-related words,       «Neuropsychological Trends», VIII, novembre, 100-103.
Balconi, M., Mazza, G., Lateralisation effect in comprehension of emotional facial expression: A comparison between EEG alpha band power and       behavioural inhibition (BIS) and activation (BAS) systems, «Laterality», 15, 361-384.

2010

Balconi, M. (2010). Empatia ed effetti della stimolazione subliminale/sovraliminale nella risposta mimica facciale. Uno studio rTMS, in Atti del       Congresso «XVI Congresso annuale Associazione Italiana di Psicologia - Sez. Psicologia Sperimentale» (Bologna, 2-3 settembre 2010), AIP,       Bologna (in collaboration with A. Bortolotti - C. Rizzetti ).
Balconi, M. (2010). Self-report measures, facial response, and personality differences (BEES) in cooperative vs. non cooperative situations:       contribution of the autonomic system to the sense of empathy, in Conference Proceedings «Second Meeting of the Federation of the European Societies of Neuropsychology» (Amsterdam, 22-24 september 2010), Amsterdam, 2010 (in collaboration with D. Crivelli).
Balconi, M. (2010). Detection of facial expression of emotion and self-report measures in empathic situations are influenced by ACC inhibition.
      rTMS evidences, in Atti del Congresso «Nuove prospettive della stimolazione magnetica transcranica: tra sperimentazione e clinica» (Brescia,       12 novembre 2010), SINC, Brescia: 6 (in collaboration with A. Bortolotti – D. Crivelli). 
Balconi, M. (2010). Detection of facial expression of emotion and self-report measures in empathic situations are influenced by ACC inhibition.       rTMS evidences. Neuropsychological Trends, 8: 101-105. (in collaboration with A. Bortolotti – D. Crivelli).
Balconi. M. (2010). Self-report measures, facial response, and personality differences (BEES) in cooperative vs. non cooperative situations:
  contribution of the autonomic system to the sense of empathy, in Atti del Congresso «Mid-Year Meeting of the International       Neuropsychological Society » (Cracovia, 30 giugno-3 luglio 2010), JINS, Ohio: 221-223 (in collaboration with A. Bortolotti).
Balconi, M. (2010). The effect of subliminal/supraliminal stimulation on empathy: an rTMS study on the perception of social cues, in Atti del     Congresso «World Congress of Neurotechnology» (Roma, 12-14 ottobre 2010), WCNT, Roma 168 (in collaboration with D. Crivelli - A. Bortolotti).

2009

Balconi, M. Mazza, G., Consciousness and emotion. ERP modulation and attentive vs. pre-attentive elaboration of emotional facial expressions
       by backward masking, «Motivation and Emotion», 33, 113-124.
Balconi, M., Mazza, G., Lateralizzazione corticale nella comprensione di pattern mimici emotivi. Un confronto tra modulazione della banda EEG       alfa e i sistemi comportamentali BIS/BAS, «Giornale di Psicologia», 3, 125-140.
Balconi, M., Pozzoli, U., Arousal effect on emotional face comprehension. Frequency band changes in different time intervals, «Physiology and       Behavior», 97, 455-462.
Balconi, M., Falbo, L., Brambilla, E., BIS/BAS responses to emotional cues: Self-report, autonomic measure and alpha band modulation,       «Personality and Individual Differences», 47, 858-863.
Balconi, M. Brambilla, E., Falbo, L., BIS/BAS, cortical oscillations and coherence in response to emotional cues, «Brain Research Bulletin», 80, 151-
      157.
Balconi, M. Brambilla, E., Falbo, L., Appetitive vs. defensive responses to emotional cues. Autonomic measures and brain oscillation modulation,       «Brain Research», 1296, 72-84.
Balconi, M., Crivelli, D., Trends in social neuroscience: from biological motion to joint actions, «Neuropsychological Trends», VI, novembre, 71-93.
Balconi, M., Mazza, G., Brain oscillations and BIS/BAS (behavioral inhibition/activation system) effects on processing masked emotional cues.       ERS/ERD and coherence measures of alpha band, «International Journal of Psychophysiology», 74, 158-165.
Balconi, M., Pozzoli, U., Event-related oscillations (ERO) and event-related potentials (ERPs) in emotional face recognition. A regression analysis,       «International Journal of Neuroscience», 118, 1412-1424.

2008

Balconi, M., Lucchiari, C., Consciousness and arousal effects on emotional face processing as revealed by brain oscillations. A gamma band       analysis, «International Journal of Psychophysiology», 67, 41-46.

2007

Balconi, M., Carrera, A. Emotional representation in facial expression and script: a comparison between normal and autistic children, «Research       in Developmental Disabilities», 28, 409-422.
Balconi, M., Carrera, A. Integrazione intersensoriale visivo-uditiva per pattern emotivi. Uno studio psicofisiologico, «Ricerche di Psicologia», 2, 85-
      110.
Balconi, M., Carrera, A., Cross-modal perception (face and voice) in emotions. ERPs and behavioural measures, «Neuropsychological Trends», I,       43-65.
Balconi, M., Lucchiari, C., Encoding of emotional facial expressions in direct and incidental tasks: Two event-related potential studies, «Australian       Journal of Psychology», 59, 13-23.
Balconi, M., Lucchiari, C., Consciousness and emotional facial expression recognition. Subliminal/supraliminal stimulation effect on N200 and P300       ERPs, «Journal of Psychophysiology», 2, 100-108.
Balconi, M., Pozzoli, U., Event-related oscillations (EROs) and event-related potentials (ERPs) comparison in facial expression recognition,       «Journal of Neuropsychology» 1, 283-294.

2006

Balconi, M., Lucchiari, C., EEG correlates (event-related desynchronization) of emotional face elaboration: a temporal analysis, «Neuroscience       Letters», 1-2, 118-123.
Balconi, M., Carrera, A., Lessicalizzazione e concettualizzazione delle espressioni facciali delle emozioni. un confronto tra patterns mimici e script       emotivi, «Età Evolutiva», 83, 18-31.
Balconi, M., Exploring consciousness in emotional face decoding: An event-related potential analysis, «Genetic, Social, and General Psychology       Monographs», 131, 41-69.
Balconi, M., Lucchiari, C., Indici psicofisiologici (potenziali corticali evento-correlati) nel decoding dell’espressione facciale delle emozioni. Effetto       della stimolazione sovraliminale e subliminale, «Giornale Italiano di Psicologia», 4 721-754.

2005

Balconi, M., An ERP study on facial expression of emotion: Comparison of linguistic and visual semantic decoding, «Perceptual and Motor Skills»,       100, 129-134.
Balconi, M., Lucchiari, C., Event-related potentials related to normal and morphed emotional faces, «The Journal of Psychology. Interdisciplinary       and Applied», 2, 176-192.
Balconi,M. Decoding dell’ espressione facciale  delle emozioni, arousal e valenza edonica. Analisi mediante potenziali evocati corticali (ERPs),       «Ricerche di Psicologia» , 2, 7-34.
Balconi, M., Lucchiari, C., Morphed facial expressions elicited a N400 ERP effect. A domain-specific semantic module?, «Scandinavian Journal of       Psychology», 46, 467-474.
Balconi, M., Lucchiari, C., In the face of emotions: event-related potentials in supraliminal and subliminal facial expression recognition, «Genetic,       Social, and General Psychology Monographs», 131, 41-69.

2004

Balconi, M., Antonietti, A., Fabio, R.A., Fruizione multimediale, processi attentivi, e rendimento scolastico, «Rassegna di Psicologia», 3, 107-135.

2003

Balconi, M., Pozzoli, U. Potenziali evocati corticali, N400 ed elaborazione di patterns visivi complessi. Analisi dei processi di codifica e       riconoscimento di informazioni semantiche, «Ricerche di Psicologia», 2, 35-58.
Balconi, M., Pozzoli, U. ERPs, semantic attribution and facial expression of emotion, «Consciousness and Emotion», 2, 63-80
Balconi, M., Pozzoli, U. Face-selective processing and the effect of pleasant and unpleasant emotional expression on ERP correlate,       «International Journal of Psychophysiology», 49, 67-74.

Crossmodal Perception - subtopic

Crossmodal perception relates to different sensory modalities. Crossmodal perception, crossmodal integration and crossmodal plasticity of the human brain are increasingly studied in neuroscience to gain a better understanding of the properties of the brain.Research on this topic includes perception of cross-modal events (such as voice-visual stimulation), congruous and incongruous perception in emotion. A related research theme is the study of multisensory perception and multisensory integration.
 
National and International Pubblications

 

2011

Balconi, M., Carrera, A., Cross-modal integration of emotional face and voice in congruous and incongruous pairs. The P2 ERP effect, «The       Journal of Cognitive Psychology» 23, 132-139.

2008

Balconi, M., Carrera, A., Percezione cross-modale delle emozioni. Sincronizzazione di codici comunicativi, in «Neuropsicologia della       comunicazione» (ed. M. Balconi), Springer, Milano, pp. 275-287.

2007

Balconi, M., Carrera, A., Integrazione intersensoriale visivo-uditiva per pattern emotivi. Uno studio psicofisiologico, «Ricerche di Psicologia», 2,       85-110.
Balconi, M., Carrera, A., Cross-modal perception (face and voice) in emotions. ERPs and behavioural measures, «Neuropsychological Trends», I,       43-65.